Animals 101

Over the past weeks, we’ve enjoyed watching Nat Geo’s “Animals 101” series on YouTube with our kids. Each video is around 4 minutes long and they share five cool facts about each animal.

Watching these videos spurred two reflections.

Each video shines the spotlight on just how special and beautiful animals are. We’re lucky to share the planet with them.

And second, every video ends with a warning about the vulnerability of these creatures to hunting and climate change.

Thankfully, we’ve done a better job with protecting species against hunting over the past three decades (even if there’s more work to be done).

Climate, however, is a different matter.

Each video manages to generate amazement and appreciation while also reminding us of the amount of work that lies ahead of us.

Thank you, National Geographic. A job well done.

Testing a gratitude app idea [would you be interested?]

2020 has been rough on many of us. In times like this, it is more important than ever to take the time to appreciate the folks who make our lives better and take stock of the many things to be grateful for.

But, it is hard to do that without building a daily habit.

We’ve been working to build a product to help do just that and we want to make this available as a mobile app.

But, building a mobile app is a lot of work.

And, in the spirit of learning quickly/understanding if this idea resonates, we’d like to start out with a 4 week “Alpha” test on a web app that we’ve built.

We’re looking for volunteers who’d be willing to commit to 2-3 minutes every day to give this product a try (we’ll send a daily reminder).

It won’t be “easy” – at least not in the stare at the screen and watch a fun video sort of way. But, we think it’ll be WELL worth the 2-3 minutes or so you invest every day. 

If you’re willing to give it a try, please just let us know on this form and I’ll follow up. 

A few rules – a few excerpts

I’ve shared Morgan Housel’s posts a few times over the past year. He shares notes from time to time that really hit the spot. And, the most recent post that hit home for me was one from last week titled “A few rules.”

Below are a few excerpts that resonated deeply.

The person who tells the most compelling story wins. Not the best idea. Just the story that catches people’s attention and gets them to nod their heads.

Tell people what they want to hear and you can be wrong indefinitely without penalty.

Being good at something doesn’t promise rewards. It doesn’t even promise a compliment. What’s rewarded in the world is scarcity, so what matters is what you can do that other people are bad at.

The world is governed by probability, but people think in black and white, right or wrong – did it happen or did it not? – because it’s easier.

Most fields have only a few laws. Lots of theories, hunches, observations, ideas, trends, and rules. But laws – things that are always true, all the time – are rare.

Simple explanations are appealing even when they’re wrong. “It’s complicated” isn’t persuasive even when it’s right.

Don’t expect balance from very talented people. People who are exceptionally good at one thing tend to be exceptionally bad at another, due to overconfidence and mental bandwidth taken up by the exceptional skill. Skills also have two sides: No one should be shocked when people who think about the world in unique ways you like also think about the world in unique ways you don’t like.

Reputations have momentum in both directions, because people want to associate with winners and avoid losers.

Impatience and the vacuum sealed container

A good friend shared an anecdote from her attempts at opening up a vacuum sealed container recently.

The process involves inverting the container into water being heated on a stove. After about 2 minutes, the heat expands the seal enough for the container to be opened.

Except, this time, she was in a hurry.

So, she tried taking it out quicker than usual.

No go.

So, she put it back in for a bit and took it out.

Again, no go.

After a few more attempts, she finally got it out.

She then reflected on how her unusual impatience had lengthened the process – the opposite of the intended outcome.

I found myself chuckling when I heard this. Unlike her, I’m guilty of impatience far more often and I’ve been guilty of doing this sort of thing more often than I like to admit.

I like to think the frequency of such incidents is far lower than it used to be.

Anecdotes like this remind me to make sure that is the case in reality.

PS: In case you’re curious, the container she was eager to open was of this pretty awesome Honey Citron Ginger tea. :-)

5 habits that help build high velocity product teams

A note for new subscribers: This post is part of a series on my notes on technology product management (this is what I do for a living). You might notice that these posts often link to older posts in the series on LinkedIn even though they are all available on this blog. That is intended for folks who only want to follow future product management related posts. Finally, for all those of you who don’t build tech products for a living, I believe many of these notes have broader applicability. And, I hope you find that to be the case as well…


A quick overview of what we’ve covered on “Notes on Product Management” so far –


I’ll start this post with two assertions.

i) Moving with velocity should be an explicit goal for every product team. Velocity is different from speed in that velocity is a vector. Velocity combines speed with direction.

No alt text provided for this image

Making velocity as an explicit goal does two things at once. First, it puts the onus on the leads in the product team to provide the team direction and ensure the path is as obstacle free as possible. For example, executives who commit to velocity do their best to clear out any alignment issues with fellow executives well ahead of the first line of code being committed.

Second, it focuses every member of the team on shipping/iterating quickly. This focus on shipping/iterating quickly turns out to be the best thing we can do to ensure the long term survival of our product.

If our product team works at a start-up, velocity can be the difference between life and death. And, if we work at a large organization, velocity can save us from having a smaller, more effective company, eat our lunch.

ii) Velocity doesn’t scale linearly with resourcing. The bottleneck to higher velocity isn’t always resourcing – it may be so 50% of the time. But, pointing to resourcing when there’s a lack of velocity happens close to 95% of the time. :-)

So, spending all available energy to grow the size of the engineering team working on a product is an amateur’s game. That’s because lean, aligned, and focused product teams operating with high velocity can blow better funded teams away.

As a PM, this might require a bit of reorientation as it is easy to fall into the trap of optimizing for the size of the team. I’d instead wager that it is always better to be part of a team that is known to punch well above your weight.

This, then, leads to the obvious question – if velocity doesn’t scale linearly with resourcing, what helps?


I think there are 5 habits that can step change the velocity of the product team.

(1) Replace hub-and-spoke leadership and communication with tight knit circles:

Many product teams operate via hub-and-spoke models. The PM may be the hub for some members of the cross-functional teams, the Eng manager for the IC engineers, and so on. Information flows from the hub to these spokes. You’re “in the know” when you have 1:1 meetings with the hub.

While this can make folks at the center of the hub temporarily indispensable, it happens to be terrible for the productivity of the team. Trust and psychological safety are the keys to effectiveness on a team. And, hub-and-spoke models aren’t optimal because they create silos that aren’t conducive to building either.

The good news is that there is a better way.

No alt text provided for this image

There are 3 things we can do as PMs to help a product team move away from this model:

    1. Replace 1:1 meetings with team syncs: Remove recurring 1:1s with various members of the product team and replace them with team syncs and stand ups
    2. Document EVERYTHING: Enable every team member to understand the context in which we operate by obsessively documenting everything – from strategy to roadmap to individual specs.
    3. Ensure shared context in meetings: Make team syncs and stand-ups productive by focusing on shared context. Every member of the team should understand what outcomes matter and how their work ladders up.

I think of this this mode of operation as a tight knit circle. Every dot on the circle is key to the shape. And, the space in the middle symbolizes the space we create for the kind of conversations that build trust and psychological safety within the group.

(2) Replace small meetings with large meetings that are used to create alignment.

Imagine you are close to launching a feature you are really excited about. Just as you get close, you realize there is a dependent team who wasn’t on the same page. Now, your team is faced with many weeks of rework before this feature sees the light of day.

This needn’t just be a dependent team. It may be an infrastructure team that didn’t get the memo about your change. Or it could be that your marketing team didn’t have enough time to prepare customers. Or an executive who is opposed to it. And so on.

Whenever a team is forced to do a lot of rework close to or after the launch date, you can be sure the culprit is poor product management. “Selling” is a core product skill for a simple reason – it is key to ensuring folks around you understand what problems you are solving, what they should be doing to help you, and why it matters.

No alt text provided for this image

And, a habit that helps with selling and bringing people along for the ride is embracing large meetings. Here’s why – in the formative stage of every product, it helps to bring the entire cross functional team along. And, if you are partnering with other product teams, that means bringing every member of that product team along too.

Sure, you can shortcut this and aim to only sync with a few of the decision makers. But, I can guarantee this strategy will cause pain down the line. It prioritizes short term efficiency over long term effectiveness.

Being comfortable with running large meetings and using them to create alignment lets us become liberal with the flow of information and context. That, in turn, helps us move significantly faster in the long run. How?

    • We get more eyes and perspectives on our problem statements and hypotheses. The dissent and rigor this creates helps us get crisper and clarify our thinking.
    • When we bring partners along, we avoid duplicative efforts and ensure there is no wasted work.
    • When other teams with similar goals and complementary assets buy into what we’re doing, such partnerships result can result in the evolution of existing platforms and systems – thus creating massive amounts of organizational leverage. It is magic when this happens.

That, in turn, speaks to the power of broad information flow and more perspectives in the room. It moves teams away from a focus on efficiency to a focus on leverage.

No alt text provided for this image

If you want to go fast, go alone. If you want to go far, go together.

(3) Be a Lannister and pay off your tech debts.

When was the last time your team had an urgent bug? I assume you celebrated the folks who burned the midnight oil to solve it?

Acknowledging and appreciating such efforts is good. But, we provide more leverage to our teams when we use such issues to prioritize upstream/preventative bets. Attempting to squeeze every inch of engineering capacity in the quarter to move metrics is a short-term efficiency focused game. And, again, if it isn’t evident, our goal isn’t efficiency – it is leverage.

To enable high velocity product development, we need to free engineering time from constantly dealing with urgent issues. And, we can do do that by marking off a proportion of our engineering capacity for foundational efforts.

No alt text provided for this image

This investment turns out to be one of the easiest things we can do to help create happy engineering teams. Such efforts don’t just reduce painful on-call shifts (they do that). In addition, they are often source of intellectually stimulating work that can often provide leverage to other engineering teams as well.

Finally, while we can run with a ~25% allocation as a rule-of-thumb, this can go up in some quarters depending on the nature of the team. Typically, the more backend work involved, the more it is likely we’ll need to make large investments and ensure the engineering team has the space and autonomy to build scalable systems.

Be a Lannister and pay off those tech debts.

(4) De-risk big bets with many small bets – remember the pottery class A/B test. Every once in a rare while, we’ll work on a project that will require us to take one big not-testable-till-we-launch bet. But, in the majority of cases, we can de-risk big bets by taking plenty of small bets.

It should come as no surprise that the way to do this is with the help of crisp problem statements, hypotheses, and success metircs. The clearer the assumptions in our hypothesis, the easier it is for us to validate them.

No alt text provided for this image

However, the bigger benefit of taking plenty of small bets is that it builds the team’s muscle to become comfortable moving quickly. This is where the story of the pottery class A/B test comes in.

Two artists, Ted Orland and David Waylon, once shared the story of a ceramics teacher who found herself teaching a class on two separate days, neatly divided in half. She decided to try an A/B experiment.  

To the first half of the class she said what she’d been saying for years – “You’ll be graded based on the quality of your work. At the end of the semester, turn in the single best piece of pottery you created.”  

To the other half of the class, she said something very different. She explained to them that they would be graded purely on quantity – “Crank out as many pots as you can this semester.” 

At the end of the term, she noticed that the best pots – both technically and artistically – didn’t come from the quality group, they came from the quantity group. By making pot after pot after pot, they were learning, and adapting. They didn’t set out to make the best pots, yet they did. Meanwhile, the other half spent the semester aiming for perfection and falling short.

(5) Live rug free – prioritize discussing the biggest challenges and be willing to change your mind.

The final habit that helps with velocity is living “rug free.” This is the most abstract note on the list – so, let me explain further.

When there are no rugs in the team room, it is impossible to sweep things under them. And, if we can’t sweep things under them, we have to be willing to encourage discussion around challenging questions and encourage thoughtful dissent.

It is easy to prioritize such discussions on our best days. But, on days when we feel our insecurities gnawing at us, it feels easier to just avoid these discussions and talk about the weather or argue about something meaningless.

But, it is precisely on such days when we should:

    • Ask – “is this the most important thing we need to discuss” – in a meeting that is going nowhere
    • Push for a discussion about a broken working model
    • Ask an executive if we’re aligned on the problem statement before getting attached to a solution

The fascinating thing about pushing for these often uncomfortable questions is that they are generally on the minds of others too. So, as long as it is accompanied by a willingness to listen to the response and change our mind based on that response, asking these questions ALWAYS helps move things forward. They help us resolve disagreements, remove discomfort, and get to alignment without letting any unpleasantness fester.

The courage required to live rug free every day isn’t talked about much. But, it has the potential to step-change the velocity of any team we’re on by changing the culture of the team. Focusing on the most challenging questions creates helps us understand how we make decisions as a group and creates an environment with high trust more often than not.

No alt text provided for this image

It is the sort of thing that never gets easy or comfortable – no matter how often we do it. We just learn to recognize when it is more important to push beyond our fears.

And, it always is.

When feedback works

I’ve noticed that feedback works in 3 situations:

1. “I am asking for feedback and am ready for it. Please give it to me straight.”

2. “You have feedback for me? I feel psychologically safe with you and trust your intentions – so, yes, please give it to me.”

3. “I report to you/believe you have power over my career/life. I will attempt to act on it even if I don’t agree.”

In all other situations, attempts at giving feedback end up achieving nothing.

The 2 hour story

I was texting with a friend who is working on an immigration related project.

He was sharing how overwhelmed he’s been by the support he’s received from folks he barely knew. He noted that it reminded him how life-changing it is to respond to people who reach out asking for help.

That, then, reminded me of a story I’d written about six years back.


A friend at Linkedin shared a story yesterday that Deep Nishar, soon-to-be former SVP of Products and User Experience, shared at his farewell.

Deep came from humble beginnings in India. When Deep was in secondary school, he learnt that a graduate from the school had been admitted at the Indian Institute of Technology. He understood it was rare and prestigious but didn’t know much beyond that. So, he asked this student if he could spend time telling him more about this. The student obliged and spent 2 hours with Deep explaining what the institutes were and how he might prepare to make it in. Deep took his advice seriously and secured admission when he graduated.

He went on to explain that that changed his life. It put him on a trajectory that saw him go to the University of Illinois Urbana Champagne, to Harvard Business School, lead Google’s efforts in the Asia Pacific and then play a key role in Linkedin’s growth over the past few years. All it took was 2 hours from a person who probably knew he would get nothing in return.

Deep’s advice to the Linkedin community was – if someone asks for a small amount of your time that could end up making a big difference to them, just do it. Don’t over think it. It might not mean much to you but it could mean a lot to the other person. And, who knows, it might even change the trajectory of their lives.

I loved this story. While we do occasionally get the opportunity to do big things, we get lots of opportunities to do the little things. We always have the choice to do the little things meaningfully.

It is stories like this that remind us how special this life is and how lucky we are to be here. Here’s to the little things… and here’s to giving small bits of our time to those who might benefit from it…


A heartwarming story I was happy to be reminded about.

Wishing you all a nice and restful weekend.

Randomness and stoicism

I listened to a fascinating description of stoicism in Nassim Taleb’s Fooled by Randomness.

“Having control over randomness can be expressed in the manner in which one acts in the small and the large. Recall that epic heroes were judged by their actions, not by the results.

No matter how sophisticated our choices, how good we are at dominating the odds, randomness will have the last word. There is nothing wrong and undignified with emotions—we are cut to have them. What is wrong is not following the heroic or, at least, the dignified path.

That is what stoicism truly means. It is the attempt by man to get even with probability. Stoicism has rather little to do with the stiff-upper-lip notion that we believe it means. The stoic is a person who combines the qualities of wisdom, upright dealing, and courage. The stoic will thus be immune from life’s gyrations as he will be superior to the wounds from some of life’s dirty tricks.”

It reminded me of the power of dedicating ourselves to the process and embracing equanimity with regards to the outcome.

It resonated.