Daniel Kahneman’s success equations

I began working my way through “The Science of Why” yesterday and was reminded of Daniel Kahneman’s equations for success from “Thinking Fast and Slow” –

Success = talent + luck
Great Success = a little more talent + a lot of luck

As someone who loves this topic, his equations made me chuckle. I tend to break up talent into a mix of privilege and mindset. But, that aside, it is nice that he omits hard work altogether.

The importance of luck – specifically in being in the right place at the right time – in our extrinsic success can’t be overstated. If you are swimming in an area where the tide is in, you don’t have to paddle.

Knowing when you need a coach

Most of us know a friend who can pick up skills at will. They say they want to learn the guitar today, watch videos on YouTube for the next 3 months, practice, and emerge as a good guitar player. Or, they actually act on their new years resolution and go to the gym.

We know we can summon up the will necessary to do that for something that’s urgently needed at work. But, we’re generally unable to prioritize stuff that’s longer term/important.

My working theory is that this ability to do self-driven skill building is a function of two things – 1) how driven you are by achievement (vs. other motives) and 2) where you lie on the spectrum between obsessive compulsive and attention deficit. That combination results in a place in the skill building spectrum

For most of us, skill building isn’t easy because we either need a peer group or, in most cases, a coach.

All this gets us to the key takeaway – the solution to accelerating our ability to learn and get better is not to kick ourselves for not being able to finish that course or go to the gym. It is to simply understand our preferences and get help from a professional.

PS: For what its worth, I think this is the greatest challenge for online learning. Only 3-6% of folks finish an online course they start. Imagine what we’d enable if we provided the support that many of the others needed.

SpyCloud – dealing with password breaches

Attacks to online security and password breaches are getting larger and more frequent.

While 2 Factor Authentication (2FA) will help prevent an “Account Take Over” following a breach, we’re in a better place to deal with potential problems when we know something happened. For example, “Account Take Over” aside, spammers might target you with emails claiming to be able to access your account because they have a password from a few years ago.

SpyCloud does exactly that. SpyCloud’s free service notifies you of any breach that involves your email address. It is becoming a must-have along with 2FA in our cyber crime defense toolkit.

Reading non-fiction – breadth and depth

It is interesting how often new year resolutions involving non-fiction books focus on breadth (e.g. targeting x books to read per month) and how few, if any at all, focus on depth.

As I’ve come to realize, breadth targets with non-fiction books are the equivalent of vanity metrics. If the goal is learning and growth, there is often more to be gained by picking ONE great book on a topic that matters to us and seeking to simply master the concepts of that book over the course of the year.

That’s because the act of reading alone doesn’t result in learning. It is the synthesis, reflection, and action that follows that results in learning.

In books as in many other things, choosing depth points to wisdom and potential transformation.

The right way to lift weight

As I’ve belatedly been learning in the past week, the right way to lift something heavy is not to bend down to lift it. Instead, it is to do a squat.

Image Source: Healthwise

The reason to do the squat is because it enables us to keep our back straight and ensures our back muscles are supported by our leg muscles.

If this sounds obvious to you, good for you.

For me, on the other hand, learning this was a reminder that doing something in a certain way for a long time doesn’t make it right. That holds true for habits that seem to come “naturally” as well.

Writing for executive audiences – a 3 step process

A note for new subscribers: This post is part of a monthly Sunday series on my notes on technology product management (this is what I do for a living). You might notice that these posts often link to older posts in the series on LinkedIn even though they are all available on this blog. That is intended for folks who only want to follow future product management related posts. Finally, for all those of you who don’t build tech products for a living, I believe many of these notes have broader applicability. And, I hope you find that to be the case as well…

We’ve covered the following topics so far in this series –

  • Defined the role of a product manager and outlined the 4 key skills required to do the job – problem finding (solving for value), selling, problem solving (solving for usability and feasibility), and building effective teams.
  • Skill #1 – Problem finding: We spent time working through why problem finding is the most important skill and how to approach building problem statements and hypotheses.
  • Skill #2 – Selling: We outlined why all Product Managers spend significant doing sales and marketing in their bid to drive the change they seek to make for their users/customers. Today’s post will focus on a core piece of this sales and marketing toolkit – writing for executive audiences.

Why is writing for executive audiences a core piece of the sales and marketing toolkit? As IC product managers, many of our opportunities to persuade tend to come from sharing our thought process in writing with internal stakeholders (typically executives in the product management org)- via strategy documents, issue investigations, product specs, and email exchanges.

I’ve intentionally picked an internal audience as the focus because that’s where the biggest challenges tend to lie. When the organization is aligned on the problem that is being solved, it is much easier to build and sell a cohesive solution to users/customers.

For the purpose of today’s post, I’m going to assume most of the longer form writing happens in long form memo-style documents versus PowerPoint presentations. I’m also not going to focus on product specs as that will form the core piece of skill #3 – Problem Solving – and will be covered in our next post.

So, today’s note will be focused on strategy documents, issue investigations, and email exchanges for executive audiences.

The 3 step process. My suggested approach to writing (and speaking) experiences is to work through the 3 parts of the process – 1) Content – start early and write down everything you want to convey, 2) Structure – rewrite your content and make it easy to consume with a logical flow, and 3) Delivery – tailor the final delivery to your audience.

1) Content – start early and write down everything you want to convey. Block 2 hours on your calendar as soon as you know you have a document to prepare and write down everything you want to convey. Don’t worry about logic or structure – simply put all your ideas down in one place.

As simple as this sounds, there is a common pitfall in this process that I’ve seen myself and others fall prey to – postponing the act of generating content because of a desire for the perfectly structured first draft.

If you are most people, your first draft is going to suck. That’s expected. Procrastinating at this stage ends up becoming very expensive because most docs require multiple revisions. Great documents are rarely written in a day. They are also rarely written by blocking out 2 days prior to your review. Instead, the optimal creation process looks something like this.

2) Structure – rewrite your content and make it easy to consume with a logical flow.

“For the average business or professional writer, producing more literate memos and reports does not mean writing shorter sentences or choosing better words. Rather, it means formally separating the thinking process from the writing process, so that you can complete your thinking before you begin to write.” | Barbara Minto, The Pyramid Principle

Now that we have followed Barbara Minto’s advice and completed our thinking in step 1, we are ready to begin to write. The key at this stage is to pick a logical structure that will help convey your ideas. There should be plenty of examples of good structure around you – just look to prior strategy docs or issue investigation docs that have been well received.

Figuring out a structure should not be rocket science. For example, a good issue investigation doc follows a version of – 1. What is the problem?, 2. Where does it lie?, 3. Why does it exist?, 4. What could we do about it?, 5. What should we do about it?

Similarly, most good product strategy docs follow a version of – 1. Problem statement (user/customer need), 2. Size of opportunity if the problem is solved, 3. Our hypothesis and key assumptions, 4. Principles, 5. Strategy (where do we play?, how do we win?), 6. Roadmap / Tests to validate key assumptions, 7. Open questions/Areas we need help.

The challenge in this step (at least in my experience) isn’t finding a good structure – instead, it is in building the discipline to keep iterating on our original draft. Again, Barbara Minto puts it nicely –

“Once you put ideas in writing, they take on an incredible beauty in the author’s eyes. They seem to glow with a fine patina that you will be quite reluctant to disturb.”

The first draft is simply the act of laying down our thought process. The act of structuring involves breaking up with that first draft and rewriting to make it easy to consume.

3) Delivery – tailor the final delivery to your audience. All the work we put into writing and speaking is to persuade our audience. So, this 3 step process involves moving from “what do I want to say?” to “how can I best make my case to the audience?”

Great sales and marketers understand that their success is dependent on their understanding of their audience. When they understand their audience, they can create the sort of resonance in their messaging that leads to action. So, as product managers, this means doing the work to get to know our audience and asking ourselves – Do you understand how to build an argument that will resonate with your key stakeholders?

If the answer is no, we need take the time to meet with our stakeholders and understand them better.

This content-structure-delivery process applies to presentations and emails as well. While we’ve focused on the creation of a document, this process works just as well for preparing a presentation, answering an email, or taking questions at the end of the presentation.

I had shared an illustration recently with a few folks on “good, better, best” for answering exec questions (in Star Wars lingo of course :-)).

As you’ll see, the same process holds. If you are responding to an email, write down your thoughts, rewrite in a logical structure that focuses on clarity over completeness, and seek to deliver the message in a way that anticipates any obvious follow up questions.

You have less time to work through this process in a live Q&A – but, the same idea holds -> understand your audience’s intent when you answer questions. And, if it is unclear, clarify.

While the purpose of the structure stage is to build a logical argument, the purpose of the delivery stage is to transcend logic and create emotional resonance.

While logic will help lead our audience to the conclusions we derive, it is emotions that will help us persuade our audience to take action to support us in our quest to build better experiences for our users/customers.

A career and life sidebar: As you’ve probably noticed by now, this approach is applicable well beyond exec communication. This post could just as easily have been called “Writing clearly” or “Communicating with clarity.” But, in the spirit of focusing on emotional resonance, I have come to realize that the term “Exec Communication” resonates better. :-)

The 3pm rush

The post office near our place closes at 3pm on Saturdays. I’ve been there a few times over the past couple of years.

When I visited last month, I made the mistake of reaching a few minutes before it closed. There were about fifteen of us who all had the same idea. Long wait aside, there was also stress flying around as folks were trying to make sure they were packing their contents in the right cardboard box while attempting to keep their place in line.

I remembered going through a similar experience when I last went to the post office a few months back as well.

So, when I realized I needed to post some letters today, I made sure I reached with twenty minutes to spare and I walked in and out within three minutes. But, as I was getting out, I could see a queue beginning to form.

It is amazing how procrastination is the default setting for so many of us. Today’s experience was a good reminder that consistently keeping it at bay is a high RoI (return-on-investment) habit.

Endless streams and free space

At a time when we can easily fill our days with attempts to process endless streams of content, our ability to produce insight is a function of our ability to consistently squeeze out the free space required to think.

The questions to ask, then, are – how much free space do we have on our calendars? And, are we being picky about the streams of content we choose to engage with?